Drug toxicities are not accurately determined from cell culture experiments. Zebrafish embryos are widely-used, versatile toxicity reporters. Both general and specific toxicities in zebrafish correlate very well with toxicities in mice or humans. Problems with fast metabolism of drugs in other animals (i.e. mice) are managed due to passive uptake of drugs from the water providing control over the drug concentration in the animal.

General toxicity

Determination of LD50 (50% lethality dose), MTD (maximally tolerated dose), NOAED (no observed adverse effects dose) and pharmacodynamics in vivo are determined in days.

Specific toxicity

Specific toxicities to various organs (brain, liver, bone-marrow, kidneys, cardiovascular system, endocrine glands, bone, muscle, GI-tract etc) are determined through the use of transgenic reporter strains.


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